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Punctuation patterns in sentences

When punctuating sentences, it is important to recognize the 8 different patterns describing how punctuation can be done. Sentences can be simple, compound and complex. Sentence can have one or more independent clauses (main clause can stand on their own) and independent one or more independent and dependent clauses (depend on independent clauses; cannot stand on their own). The punctuation patterns can be combined and applied to these different forms of sentences. There are also examples provided to demonstrate these punctuation patterns.

1. Pattern One: Simple sentence

This pattern is an example of a simple sentence:

Independent clause [ . ]

Example: The outbreak of Polio in some provinces in PNG is of great concern to the National Health Department.

 

2. Pattern Two : Compound Sentence

This pattern is an example of a compound sentence with a coordinating conjunction:

Independent clause [ , ] coordinating conjunction independent clause [ . ]

There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet.

Example: Many undergraduate students at DWU were taught research skills, but many are yet to master them.

 

3. Pattern Three: Compound Sentence

This pattern is an example of a compound sentence with a semicolon.

Independent clause [ ; ] independent clause [ . ]

Example: Many digicel mobile users in PNG are concerned about the increasing in rates; they are not sure about its cause.

 

4. Pattern Four: Compound Sentence

This pattern is an example of a compound sentence with an independent marker.

Independent clause [ ; ] independent marker [ , ] independent clause [ . ]

Examples of independent markers are the following: therefore, moreover, thus, consequently, however, also.

Example: The rise in lawlessness in Madang is scaring potential tourists away; therefore, a new policing strategy called the Foot-beat has been introduced.

 

5. Pattern Five: Complex Sentence

This pattern is an example of a complex sentence with a dependent marker.

Dependent marker dependent clause[ , ] Independent clause[ . ]

Examples of dependent markers are as follows: because, before, since, while, although, if, until, when, after, as, as if.

Example: Because the Diwai Mart is located on DWU campus, staff and students can access its services up till 6:30pm on week days.

 

6. Pattern Six: Complex Sentence

This pattern is an example of a complex sentence with a dependent marker.

Independent clause dependent marker dependent clause [ . ]

Examples of dependent markers are as follows: because, before, since, while, although, if, until, when, after, as, as if.

Example: There are ongoing training for DWU staff and students on how to use the Moodle platform for teaching and learning because there is still a lot of e-tools to learn.

 

7. Pattern Seven

This pattern includes an independent clause with an embedded non-essential clause or phrase

First part of an independent clause [ , ] non-essential clause or phrase, rest of the independent clause [ . ]

A non-essential clause or phrase is one that can be removed without changing the meaning of the sentence or making it ungrammatical. In other words, the non-essential clause or phrase gives additional information, but the sentence can stand alone without it.

Example: Many DWU staff, including those in catering services, are concerned about the behavior of students during weekends. 

 

8. Pattern Eight

This pattern includes an independent clause with an embedded essential clause or phrase

First part of an independent clause essential clause or phrase rest of the independent clause [ . ]

An essential clause or phrase is one that cannot be removed without changing the overall meaning of the sentence.

Example: Many Papua New Guineans who are concerned about the amount of money the PNG Government is spending on international events have been posting their views on social media platforms. 

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